Wednesday, November 26, 2014

Essay on Stratosphere

The stratosphere (from LAT. Stratum: layer) is a layer of the atmosphere that is located at a height from 11 to 50 km. There is a little decrease of the temperature at the heights from 11 to 25 km (the lower part of the stratosphere) and an increase of it in the layer of 25-40 km from -56.5 to 0.8°C (the top layer of the stratosphere or the inversion field ). At the altitude of 40 km, the temperature value is about 273°K (almost 0° by Celsius), the temperature remains constant up to the height of about 55 km. This area of constant temperature is called the stratopause and is the boundary between the stratosphere and mesosphere. The density of air in the stratosphere is hundreds times less than at the sea level.

It is in the stratosphere, where the ozone layer is located (at the height from 15-20 km to 55-60 km) that specifies the upper limit of the life in the biosphere. Ozone (O3) is generated during photochemical reactions most intensely at the altitude of about 30 km. At the normal pressure, the total mass of O3 would be a layer with thickness of 1.7-4.0 mm, but that is enough to absorb ultraviolet radiation from the Sun harmful for the life form. Destruction of O3 occurs when it reacts with free radicals, NO, Halogen containing compounds (including freon).

In the stratosphere, most of the short-wave part of the ultraviolet radiation (180-200 nm) and short-wave energy transformation occurs. Under the influence of these rays, magnetic fields are changing and there is the molecule decay and ionization, de novo synthesis of gases and other chemical compounds. These processes can be observed in the form of Northern Lights and other glows.

Tuesday, November 18, 2014

Essay on Advantages of Living in a Big City

Despite the claims that living in a big city is much more expensive than in small towns or suburbs, the migration of the population from the sparsely populated towns to the metropolitan areas is growing. The massive exodus of the population to the large cities, which began back in over a hundred years ago, continues. This applies especially to young people. This trend may be due to the search for a better life. What are the advantages of living in a big city that attract people so much that they are ready to leave their home and enjoy the suspense and the frantic pace of life, the glittering lights of mega-cities?

Some people move to a big city for the sake of the benefits of modern civilization and the entertainment industry, like shows, entertainment centers and restaurants, which, it must be recognized, there are a lot in the major cities. However, some people are searching for more important cultural heritage.

For some it is an opportunity to leave their conservative families and to live full life and create something bigger that what they have seen before in their small town.

It is widely known that in big cities there are the best and most prestigious educational institutions. 

Many people come to the big city to enroll in College, where they will find a shelter, where they will be able to fully discover and realize their abilities, which is the most important thing is that they will be able to receive quality education that will give them better chances for the successful future.

It is much harder to find a high paying and interesting work in province than in the big city. The local population and entrepreneurs of the large cities are also see their benefits in this:  the employer has a choice to hire relatively cheap labor, in the person of "a guest workers" from less developed countries or smaller nearby settlements.

The main advantages of living in the big city are the opportunities and prospects the city offers to the newcomers. Still more wannabes from the province go to conquer New York, London, or Paris. They believe that it is in these cities, they will be able to fulfill their dreams, realize their potential, and achieve general acceptance or find a high-paying job they were dreaming of. It is not surprising that a huge amount of show-business stars, politicians, and artists are not natives of the big city and came from the province. However, let’s face it, the more the city, the more difficult to achieve some mind-blowing heights. Big cities can be conquered only by the most dedicated, talented, hard-working and strong personalities.

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Thursday, November 13, 2014

Essay on Role of Youth in National Development

Today the key role of youth and students in national development becomes more obvious.

We must regard every individual representative of young people as the real acting person of the social and innovative development of not only a certain region, hometown, or village, but also society and state on the whole. In fact, modern youth represent a generation on which depends the future of the country and which by definition advantageously differs from other groups of population by health, intellectual activity, and mobility level.

In the last decade a change in attitude toward young people is noticeable, it is increasingly often considered as an active participant of social transformations (actor), rather than just as a group, causing public anxiety and violating the generally accepted rules. It is happening partly due to the efforts by the nongovernment youth organizations all around the world (especially, the human rights movements) and to the change of social quality of the young generation, partly, because of the problem of the global aging of the planet population.

It is interesting to look at the going changes through the prism of the human potential development conception, introduced by the UN development program as the series of instrument analyzing the level of human development in countries and global regions. According to the data collected in 1999 and published in the last report on human resource development in 2001, the special attention in modern society is dedicated to the role of NT from the point of view of expansion of possibilities for the country population, presenting the range of various choices, available in everyday life.

Meaningfulness of the development from position of young people also does not cause doubts. It can even be seen in the circumstance that the report made a special accent regarding the young generation. The analysis of its values and priorities, socio-economic position, as well as the qualities of education and health allow better to foresee future progress trends. The questions of strategic importance is division of responsibility between generations, balance of roles, leadership and power, the responsibility by the youth for the development of new directions, for example, mastering highly technological industries.

The processes of globalization differently influenced the generations. Social time is perceived as broken on short segments (projects) requiring from a man, before all young, maximal mobilization of available resources and then rapid passing to new project. Middle and senior generations are forced to accept the new understanding of time. New reality of globalization does not give an opportunity to build plans on the distant future. Today's young people notedly differ from senior generations in their ability to adapt to any social changes.

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Saturday, November 8, 2014

Essay on Importance of Computer Education

Careful analysis of current tendencies in education shows that computer education is an important ingredient for success today. Computer education is an attribute, organically inherent to the civilized society, pursuing the satisfaction of its informative needs for seamless operation of its vital functions.

The importance of computer education is directly related to the development in the computing engineering, telecommunications, and artificial intelligence.

In the materials, published by the Center of informatics of UNESCO, dedicated to the system of advanced education, computer education is presently defined as fundamental discipline having three basic directions:
  • theoretical informatics;
  • technical informatics;
  • social informatics.
At the end of the ХХ of century, our society was often named informative, and changes in it were denoted as informative revolution. Due to fast development of computer technology, the things only yesterday we could not believe can exist, become reality: today, people all over the world have access to the most various information in any point of planet; they can share information with each other and even communicate in real-time mode.

There is an impression that to live means to have right information. However, to do this, you need to know the rules of navigation in this enormous ocean of information and to possess certain skills to be able to find exactly what you need. The level of computer skills in a modern man is determined by many by criteria: first of all by his ability to determine own need in information, then, ability to find a reliable source of the relevant information and to use, ability to effectively search, estimate, use the information and to create new.

Unfortunately, the level of computer education in most countries is equal subzero. From one side, it is explained by insufficient introduction of information technology in all spheres of our life, and from the other, by the absence of the system of training of literate consumers of information. The special anxiety is caused by this problem in regard to young generation.

For young people, computer education gives an access to information, and thus, to knowledge. It gives span-new opportunities for acquiring professional skills and for work. Therefore, the formation of informative culture in growing generations is a very important task. First of all for schools, which is often the first and only institution to teach the students some basic computer skills.

Today in connection with the accelerated processes of society informatization, the education system faces a new aim, which is to make a student a user, able to adequate estimate the requirements of modern informative society. Computer education is a new requirement for a successful person, who wants to always be in the front line of science and technology.

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Monday, November 3, 2014

Michael Schumacher Essay

Michael Schumacher is the real legend of the Formula One world. His name is known in the whole world, and his driving style already a long ago became a visual aid for millions of motor races fans in all corners of our planet. Enormous amount of titles, records and personal victories made Schumacher a living icon of the sport. But do we really need to talk about the well-known fact of Michael's biography and the chronicle of his career? Probably, not. For this reason in this essay on Michael Schumacher I will try to focus on the unknown episodes of the champion's life and tell about Schumacher, foremost, as about a simple man.

The legendary Formula pilot was born in the small German town of Hurth, on the third January, 1969. His mother was a housewife, and a father worked as a simple mason. For this reason, no one who knew Michael as a child could hardly suppose that little Mike will become one of the greatest racing drivers in the world. Maybe, only his father could have a thought about it: Rolf Schumacher was always a big fan of motor races. In 1974, he built for Michael a go-kart on the basis of the most ordinary lawn mower.

At the age of fourteen Michael Schumacher got his first racing driver license that allowed him to compete in various official competitions. After only three years, Michael won a few prestige championships both in Germany and abroad. Among the most impressive, it is possible to name his victories in Formula Konig and German Formula Three. In addition, Junior Schumacher was part of the Mercedes competing in the world championship on car racing endurance.

Appearance of Michael in the Formula One to a great extent was a chance. In 1991, the Jordan Team first pilot went to jail for a casual fight with a taxi-driver. This episode became an unpleasant surprise for the proprietor of the team Eddie Jordan that r forced to search the replacement for the drop-out pilot in the emergency order.

In his debut race, young racing driver came seventh to the finish, which was a remarkable result for comparatively slow Jordan Team. After such an impressive debut, the representatives of Benetton did not fail to entice Michael under their banners. So already next year Schumacher became a pilot for the Benetton-Ford team.

In his first race for the team, the young pilot beat his team partner, former world champion Nelson Piquet and finished fifth. In 1992, Schumacher won his first race.

During his career, Schumacher has won seven titles of the world champion and two two times the vice-champion in the world series. Five champion titles were conquered by the Michael in a row.

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Tuesday, October 14, 2014

Women as Morally Suspect Essay

This essay paper will analyze the films "Baby Face" and "Double Indemnity" in terms of their message and story line in relation to the morality of women. Given that women’s sexuality is often linked to immorality, since it can be used as a tool to weaken and control men, the appropriate roles for women are those demanding self-sacrifice in the name of romantic love, such as wives and mothers. However, in the aforementioned films women are represented in their seducers’ roles.

In ‘Baby Face,’ Lily Powers is portrayed as the ultimate symbol of female destructive sexuality. 

From the very beginning of the film, her immorality is established as she is forced to sleep with her father’s clients. However, this also suggests that she is a victim of circumstances rather than in intentional seducer and power-seeker. Her first application of her female charms occurs when she has to make up to a railroad worker for trying to escape from her little town and miserable life on a freight train. In New York, she is able to get employment and make her way up the career ladder by sleeping with the right people. Yet such a behavior on the part of a female character inevitable leads to tragedy in classic cinema. When Ned Stevens kills himself and his potential father-in-law after discovering the Lily is involved with the latter, Lily’s downfall is foreshadowed.

After marrying Courtland Trenholm, Lily does not give up her ways and is reluctant to help her husband when he gets in trouble; instead, she decides to run away with all his presents. However, she discovers that she loves him, but it is too late, since Courtland has shot himself in his office. Thus, the film is a story of redemption and transformation of a seducer into a loving and caring wife. Since this transformation happened too late, Lily is punished for her immorality. At the same time, Courtland is said to have good chances of survival. This plot development represents hope that even a deeply immoral woman can turn into a caring and sacrificial being and be rewarded for that instead of being punished by her dangerous sexuality.

In the second film, ‘Double Indemnity,’ the representation of a female using her sexuality as the means for achieving material gains is also connected with the portrayal of femmes fatale as immoral and dangerous. Phyllis seduces Neff into killing her husband and using ‘double indemnity’ provision in his life insurance policy to get double the amount of compensation. Apart from using her sexuality as a weapon, she is unfaithful, just like Lily, and flirts with her stepdaughter’s boyfriend. Phyllis has no sympathy for anyone, not even Neff, as she confesses after shooting Neff. Yet there is also an element of redemption involved: when wounded Neff asks her to shoot him to death, she is unable to fire the gun because she discovers feelings for Neff. Yet it is already too late, and the seducer has to be punished: Neff does not believe her words and shoots Phyllis.

It is possible to conclude that both films establish a narrative of female sexuality as dangerous and devastating, especially when employed for speculative gain. While seducers can discover love deep in their hearts, it is usually too late to avert tragic consequences.

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Friday, October 10, 2014

Critical Thinking Essay Example

Using the categories “True”, “Good” and “Beautiful” in Critical Thinking
Critical thinking is our way to analyze information, ideas and opinions in a rational way, defining them clearly and making conclusions. The result can be a new understanding of an issue and may lead to creative ideas or to asking further questions about something we see or hear.

This process of evaluation should be based on structured methods. Those methods, whether scientific or not, are heavily based on putting the existing information in its right context. Not every new piece of information demands a new review and analysis. Thinking independently and critically means, in fact, to continue the work and thinking of others.

We do it by making judgements in a way of categorization, meaning organizing the information we get into groups and evaluating it according to the group and the relations with other groups. For example, two well-proved evidences from two separate sciences can be combined together to help us observe one’s assumption or judgment.

These groups can be divided to objective and subjective categories. As we discuss below, objective categories are fact-based and are the building blocks for healthy scientific thinking, while subjective categories are more open to personal tastes, preferences and believes, which are legitimate even if they cannot be immediately proved. They can never be ignored or disrespected because logical thinking must also take speculations into account, although attention must be put to understand such viewpoints as non-factual. 

The ability to distinguish between subjective and objective information is not an easy task, as some writers use manipulative language to present their subjective opinions as facts. As always in critical thinking, learning how to ask the right questions is the key to make rational judgments.

Objective categories: the “True” and the “False”
Objective judgement is based on evaluating a statement of opinion according to its factual basis. The essential measurement here is the speaker’s ability to prove his claim beyond reasonable doubt by providing sound evidences. 

Our task as thinkers is to examine the proofs and to conclude whether the claim is true or false; if there are evidences that contradict the statement, it might be that the claim is simply false according to our judgement or prior knowledge. 

Hence, the key issue here is to look beyond the simple statement and look closely at the nature and reliability of the proofs that support it. Evidences that can be generally regarded as good proof are based on some degree of methodology. These are, for example, experiments, statistical data, analogies and proven examples that the issue exists in reality. Experts’ opinions may also serve as proofs, although the obvious question here is what makes someone an expert and what we should do when two experts disagree with each other. In such cases when an opinion is open to debate, we better not see the opinion as fact or as a clear support to a fact. 

However, a good critical thinker must always remember that even well-proven empirical data might be proved in the future as false or some other findings may show the complete opposite.

Subjective categories: the “Good”, the “Bad”, the “Beautiful” and the “Ugly”
As critical thinkers, we are also allowed to accept and express opinions which are not proved, therefore are neither true nor false. Remember that every experiment is based on assumptions; someone would say: “I think that X is true, and therefore I am going to test it now”. 

Subjective categories try to label ideas in other ways than “true” or “false”. They are characterized by adjectives of tastes and beliefs, such as “good”, “beautiful”, “dangerous”, “best” and so on. When we see such adjectives, the statement should be regarded as subjective, especially when accompanied by phrases like “I believe that...”, “I see X as...” etc. 

As mentioned before, many writers and speakers tend to present their opinions are facts in order to convince others. One must remember that subjective opinions often remain so even when the speaker uses some logical arguments or information that appears to be factual base. This is happening because the interpretation he or she has given to the facts; obviously, someone else may draw other conclusions from the same facts.

Distinguishing objective and subjective categories
In order to know the difference between the two categories, one must ask several critical questions, such as:
  • Who is the writer?
  • How does the writer justify his views?
  • Why he wrote the argument? What is the writer trying to achieve?
  • What sources writer has used to prove his point?
In conclusion, a major step in critical thinking is evaluating others’ opinions and judgements. Since these opinions are an essential basis for the thinker, they should not be ignored but be brought to a rational and careful examination and then they can be used for developing our own ideas. 

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